Reminders

Articles: AJCP

COMMUNITY PRACTICE ARTICLES:

A Community Practice Model for Community Psychologists and Some Examples of the Application of Community Practice Skills from the Partnerships for Success Initiative in Ohio
Vol. 37, No. 1-2, March 2006
David A. Julian

ABSTRACT
This paper provides an opportunity to consider the concept of community practice from the vantage point of community psychology. The author arguesthatcommunity psychology has significant potential to change organizations, communities, and other settings to benefit setting occupants. However, it is the author's contention that the full realization of this potential is contingent upon an organized effort to engage in formal community practice. The author defines community practice in terms of four skill sets related to mobilization, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The author also describes settings that might support community practice and discusses implications for training and the field of community psychology in general. Finally, the author illustrates several community practice skills and roles in the context of a local community-based initiative in Ohio called Partnerships for Success.

A Practitioner's Guide to Successful Coalitions
Vol. 29, No. 2, April, 2001
Thomas Wolf

ABSTRACT
The highly complex practice of building successful community coalitions is explored. Key dimensions related to coalition success are identified and best practices are delineated. Nine dimensions are explored that are critical to coalition success: coalition readiness, intentionality, structure and organizational capacity, taking action, membership, leadership, dollars and resources, relationships, and technical assistance. Two coalition case studies follow the discussion of dimensions and illustrate the journey traveled to create successful community coalitions.

A Qualitative Evaluation of School-Based Family Resource and Youth Service Centers
Vol 26, No. 4, August, 1998
John Kalafa

ABSTRACT
As part of the Kentucky Education Reform Act, school-based Family Resource/Youth Service Centers were commissioned to address those poverty-related issues that attenuate children and youths' coming to school prepared to learn. The centers had flexible mandates and were to adapt their service profiles to local urban, suburban and rural communities. A variety of grounded, inductive qualitative strategies were employed in an implementation evaluation that yielded profiles or domains of program elements, and descriptions of implementation strategies and impact on participants. These program descriptors were considered accurate by program personnel, formed the basis for training new program coordinators, and have served as reliable predictors of educational outcomes for program participants, thus affirming the utility of the qualitative evaluation approaches.

Academic on a mission: Run and run and run
Vol. 24, No. 6, December, 1996
Joseph Galano

ABSTRACT
Challenges the distinctions we make between research/scholarship and practice. Recognizes and values the complimentarity of teaching, research, practice, and public policy. Tells how I have tried to approach creating opportunities to integrate those activities in my role as a community psychologist in an academic setting. Describes some of the lessons I have learned from my two decades of practice.

Applying a Theory of Change Approach to Interagency Planning in Child Mental Health
Vol. 38, No. 3-4, December, 2006
Mario Hernandez & Sharon Hodges

ABSTRACT
This paper describes the use of a theory of change approach to community-based cross-agency service planning for children with serious emotional disturbance and their families. Public agency planners in Contra Costa County, California used the theory of change approach to organize service planning for a population of youth who had been arrested and involved with juvenile probation. The theory of change process described in this paper links community outcomes with planned activities with the assumptions or principles that underlie the community planning efforts. When complete, a theory of change logic model can serve as a guide for implementation, ensuring that community plans for service delivery remain true to their intent. The theory of change development process includes twelve stages and is based on a step-by-step approach. Theory of change logic models establish a context for articulating a community's shared beliefs and prompt local stakeholders to establish logical connections between the population to be served, expected results, and strategies intended to achieve those results.

Article for "Diversity Stories in Community Research and Action" Facing Resistance in Waking Up to Privilege
Vol. 37, No. 3-4, June, 2006
Hugh Vasquez

ABSTRACT
This article identifies a challenge brought to us while facilitating a diversity workshop with adults in a school work setting. Our program involved using the video The Color of Fear as a centerpiece of a training to school district staff where the goals were to raise awareness and understanding of race, gender and class issues, increase understanding of power and privilege, and build alliances between people from diverse backgrounds. The challenge came from a white, male participant and involved issues of privilege, the intersections of race, class, and gender, and resistance to addressing diversity matters. Reflections of what worked and didn't work are offered as well as recommendations to other facilitators who will face similar challenges.

Assessment of Quality of Outcomes within a Local United Way Organization: Implications for Sustaining System Level Change
Vol. 38, No. 3-4, December, 2006
David A. Julian & Francis Kombarakaran

ABSTRACT
This paper provides a historical case study of efforts to implement and sustain "outcomes based funding" in a large United Way system in Central Ohio. The case study describes how community practitioners employed specific strategies to promote sustainability. The use of these strategies corresponds to several techniques suggested in the sustainability literature. This case study is offered as a means of considering how practitioners helped sustain the shift to outcomes based funding within the United Way system. In addition, this case study demonstrates how skills related to implementation and sustainability might be transferred to other situations where practitioners are interested in promoting change within large organizations and/or communities. The authors suggest that skills related to implementation and sustainability are essential to community practice.

 Community Coalition Building-Contemporary Practice and Research: Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Vol. 29, No 2, April 2001
Thomas Wolff

ABSTRACT
Over the last 20 years, coalition building has become a prominent intervention employed in communities across America. Coalitions provide community psychologists and those in related fields with a chance to work with whole communities and to better understand how to create community change. As we reflect on the past two decades of community coalition building, there are many questions to be answered about this phenomenon. Why has there been such an upsurge in community coalition building activity? What is the impact of this activity? What have we as students of community learned? What are the questions that we need to be asking to improve the effectiveness of coalition building efforts and their evaluation? This set of articles will review the state of the art of community coalition building in both practice and research. The structure of the articles reflects a collaborative process, with multiple contributors from different disciplines, using a variety of formats. Because this is an evolving phenomenon where the questions asked are as important as the lessons learned, many of the major sections include dialogues with community experts from across the country and from multiple fields, including community psychology, public health, political science, public administration, and grassroots organizing.

Community Social Organization, Parents, and Peers as Mediators of Perceived Neighborhood Block Characteristics on Delinquent and Prosocial Activities
Vol. 37, No. 1-2, March 2006
Dan Cantillon

ABSTRACT
Research on contextual and neighborhood effects has grown exponentially over the past decade as researchers have reacknowledged that community matters. Although empirical findings have consistently documented the significant influence of neighborhood context, the field is just beginning to investigate the varied and multiple pathways through which this influence is transmitted. The current study found support for both a direct and indirect influence of perceived neighborhood structural characteristics (i.e., neighborhood stability, income), measured at the block level, on neighborhood and youth outcomes. Directly, perceived neighborhood advantage led to significantly lower neighborhood rates of official delinquency and higher rates of prosocial activity. Indirectly, perceived neighborhood advantage significantly impacted outcomes by influencing more proximal constructs such as community social organization, informal social control, parenting practices, and affiliation with delinquent peers. Different pathways were significant across neighborhood and youth outcomes, yet perceived neighborhood advantage, in particular neighborhood stability, consistently exerted substantial effects, highlighting the need for more comprehensive and multilevel prevention efforts.

Defining Location in the Mental Health System: A Case Study of a Consumer-Run Agency
Vol. 36, No. 3-4, December 2005
Barbara J. Felton

ABSTRACT
In this ethnographic study of a mental health service agency staffed by "consumers," or fellow "recipients" of services for serious mental illness, the concept of community narrative provides the framework for examining how such an agency preserves its consumer identity while providing services dictated by the established service system. Locating the agency's narrative in its "origins tale," analysis revealed five principles comprising the agency's identity: a normalizing view of mental illness, a commitment to helping, a dual-valued understanding of the mental health system, and beliefs in recovery and in the significance of employment as a criterion for recovery. Predicted consequences of narrative functioning emerged in social climate and staff expressions of cohesion and commitment. The local meaning of these narrative themes reveals the agency's view of the consumer element in its work and its solution to the dilemma of being both inside and outside of the mental health system.

A Case Study of the Implementation of Outcomes-Based Funding Within a Local United Way System: Some Implications for practicing Community Psycholgy.                                                                                                                                                         Vol. 29, No. 6, December 2001
 David A. Julian

ABSTRACT

This case study provides an overview of significant organizational change within the United Way system in Franklin County/Columbus, Ohio. Franklin County is a major urban center with a population approaching 1 million. The implementation of outcomes-based funding proved to be a critical factor that served to promote change within the local United Way system. Adoption of outcomes-based funding principles resulted in significant shifts in United Way funding and major policy changes. A chronology of events and stakeholder reactions over a multiyear period are reviewed. The implications of this effort to initiate major, system-level change for the practice of community psychology are discussed.

A Community Practice Model for Community Psychologists and Some Examples of the Application of Community Practice Skills from the Partnerships for Success Initiative in Ohio
 Vol. 37, No. 1-2, March 2006
 David A. Julian

ABSTRACT
This paper provides an opportunity to consider the concept of community practice from the vantage point of community psychology. The author argues that community psychology has significant potential to change organizations, communities, and other settings to benefit setting occupants. However, it is the author's contention that the full realization of this potential is contingent upon an organized effort to engage in formal community practice. The author defines community practice in terms of four skill sets related to mobilization, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The author also describes settings that might support community practice and discusses implications for training and the field of community psychology in general. Finally, the author illustrates several community practice skills and roles in the context of a local community-based initiative in Ohio called Partnerships for Success.

Engaging Diversity's Underbelly: A Story from an Immigrant Parish Community
 Vol. 37, No. 3-4, June 2006
 Mark B. Borg

ABSTRACT
This story explores an intervention conducted in a Catholic parish community in New York City. The intervention, conducted by the author and a Jesuit priest, focused on issues of unity and diversity among the various Chinese immigrant subgroups in the parish (primarily Cantonese- and Mandarin-speakers). Issues of class, power, and a history of colonialism in the Catholic Church are explored as central to the relations among culturally diverse Chinese American community members and between the members and the practitioners and the church authority. The author especially focuses on how the dynamics that played out in the intervention reflected wider issues of economics, labor practices, and political elitism in the wider Chinatown community. A central part of the author's argument is about power relationships between this parish community and Chinatown and how these power relationships are embedded within broader racial and economic oppression within the United States.

Enhancing Quality of Practice Through Theory of Change-Based Evaluation: Science or Practice?
 Vol. 35, No. 3-4, June 2005
 David A. Julian

ABSTRACT
This paper describes the evaluation component of Partnerships for Success (PfS), a comprehensive community effort designed to address youth development issues. The evaluation component is referred to as theory of change-based evaluation. The author considers the implications of applying community practice tools such as theory of change-based evaluation to the current conceptualization of community science. More specifically, the author argues that the current conceptualization of community science pays scant attention to community practice. This paper concludes by suggesting that the current conceptualization of community science be modified to recognize the importance of community practice as an equal aspiration for community psychologists.

Investing in Children, Families, and Communities: Challenges for an Interdivisional Public Policy Collaboration
 Vol. 29, No. 1, February, 2001
 Andrea L. Solarz

ABSTRACT
An interdivisional collaboration to foster the development of strengths-based policies for children, youth, families, and communities is described. The initiative includes (1) producing a book that integrates scholarly research and policy; (2) developing materials for policymakers to use, including a policy-oriented summary of the book; (3) enhancing the capacities of the divisions to communicate with and influence policymakers; and (4) taking action steps to influence policymakers. During the process of developing these products, a number of tensions emerged between the academically-based and policy-based authors of the book, many of which centered around how the information should be presented and, in particular, how to formulate and present policy recommendations. Tensions fell into four general categories: understanding the appropriate scope for recommendations, using the right language, understanding the kind of information that is needed, and understanding the bottom line. The author concludes by urging psychologists to become adept at understanding and participating in the public policymaking process.

Stronger Relationships, Stronger Communities: Lessons From a Regional Intergroup Grant Initiative                                                                                                                                                                                                                Vol. 37, No. 3-4, June 2006 
   Kien S. Lee & James R. Calvin

ABSTRACT
This paper tells the story of an intergroup grant initiative and the neighborhood projects it supported. It highlights the challenges of race and power, in conjunction with other overlapping identities and forms of discrimination. The demographics of the greater Goodland region have changed dramatically over the last few years and decades. The life for traditionally European American and African American communities is being altered by a steady influx of new immigrants from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This paper discusses a philanthropic community's response to these changes and within this, two specific neighborhood-based responses. The lessons and insights described in this paper, told by the initiative's evaluator and advisory council co-chair, are drawn from five years' of systematic data collection and analysis, focused observations, and the reflections of other participants in the initiative.

Systems change as an outcome and a process in the work of community collaboratives for health
 Vol. 39, No. 3-4, June 2007
 James G. Emshoff, Adam J. Darnell, Doyanne A. Darnell, Steve W. Erickson, Stan Schneider, & Rebekah Hudgins

ABSTRACT
The widespread development of comprehensive community initiatives that aim to improve community health is driven by the need to change the systems charged with delivering the services and creating the policies related to a variety of health outcomes. Georgia's Family Connection initiative is the nation's largest statewide network of community collaboratives for health, with collaboratives operating in 159 counties. Data on community context, collaborative processes, engagement in systems change, and changes in programs and activities implemented, gathered consistently at the collaborative level over 3 years, will be used to answer the following questions. How do community contexts and the structure and processes of collaboratives affect implementation of systems change? How do systems changes affect intermediate outcomes such as the type of programs offered in a community? Longitudinal change in systems change and program implementation is described and significant predictors of between-collaborative variation in longitudinal change for each outcome are identified.

The Future of Community Coalition Building
 Vol. 29, No. 2, April 2001
 Thomas Wolff

ABSTRACT
The future holds great promise for community coalitions as powerful interventions for community change. Community change is envisioned as: working with whole communities; increasing grassroots and civic engagement; promoting diversity, collaboration and, advocacy; increasing roles for professional technical assistance and evaluation; future changes in the role of government; and the building of healthy communities. Examples of these dimensions follow, as contributed by activists from a wide range of fields.

Opening the Black Box: Using Process Evaluation Measures to Assess Implementation and Theory Building                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Vol. 27, No. 5, October, 1999 
Tracy W. Karachi, Robert D. Abbott, Richard F. Catalano, Kevin P. Haggerty, & Charles B. Fleming

ABSTRACT
The past decade has seen increasing recognition in prevention science of the need to move away from a black box approach to intervention evaluation and toward an approach that can elaborate on the mechanisms through which changes in the outcomes operate (Chen & Rossi, 1989; Durlak & Wells, 1997; Spoth et al., 1995). An approach that examines issues of program implementation is particularly critical in the design of efficacy studies of school-based preventive interventions. Numerous preventive intervention strategies are now delivered within the schools, often by regular classroom teachers. The extent to which teachers faithfully deliver a particular curriculum or incorporate instructional strategies emphasized by an intervention is a critical question for the overall project evaluation. This article illustrates the utilization of process measures from a multicomponent school-based prevention program to examine implementation of a teaching staff development intervention, and the program's underlying theoretical basis. Given the nested study design, the analyses utilize hierarchical linear models (Bryk & Raudenbush, 1992) to examine changes in teaching strategies by condition and investigate the hypothesized relationships between teaching practices and student behaviors based on the program's theoretical framework. Results suggest that teaching practices in two of the six intervention focus areas were positively impacted in the first 18 months of the project. Findings also support the relationships between teachers' instructional practices and students'behaviour.    

                                                                                                                                                       
Using Internet-Based Resources to Build Community Capacity: The Community Tool Box [http://ctb.ukans.edu/]
Vol. 29, No. 2, April 2001
Vincent T. Francisco, Stephen B. Fawcett, Jerry A. Schultz, Bill Berkowitz, Thomas J. Wolff, & Genevieve Nagy

NO ABSTRACT

UNIVERSITY-COMMUNITY PRACTITIONER COLLABORATIONS:

Utilizing Program Evaluation as a Strategy to Promote Community Change: Evaluation of a Comprehensive, Community-Based, Family Violence Initiative
 Vol. 38, No. 3-4, December 2006
 Joy S. Kaufman, Cindy A. Crusto, Michael Quan, Ellen Ross, Stacey R. Friedman, Kim O'Rielly, & Stephanie Call

ABSTRACT
This paper describes the authors' work in a community that received Federal funding for an integrated system of care to reduce the impact and incidence of exposure to violence for children less than six years of age. The paper includes a review of the conceptual framework that guided the work of the authors and provides a brief overview of the issue of family violence, the impact of this violence on young children, and the Federal response to this issue. In addition, a description of the Initiative and the community in which it was based is provided along with some aspects of the evaluation plan. Finally, the authors discuss how their work with this Initiative depicts an approach to facilitating change within communities.

The Making of an Interdisciplinary Partnership: The Case of the Chicago Food System Collaborative
 Vol. 38, No. 1-2, September 2006
 Yolanda Suarez-Balcazar, Maureen Hellwig, Joanne Kouba, LaDonna Redmond, Louise Martinez, Daniel Block, Claire Kohrman,  & William Peterman

ABSTRACT
Interdisciplinary partnerships foster innovation to address pressing social problems. This paper describes an interdisciplinary partnership called the Chicago Food System Collaborative (CFSC) composed of a team of partners from four academic institutions and three community-based organizations representing a total of eight disciplines that included: community development and community organizing, community psychology, geography, nursing, nutrition, public health, sociology, and urban planning and policy. Partners came together to address the issue of access to healthy foods and nutrition in a working class African American neighborhood. We analyze and discuss the core principles that guided the partnership and its impact across three dimensions: understanding through interdisciplinary action research, building capacity, and facilitating innovations in practices and policies. Despite the challenges of interdisciplinary partnerships, the potential benefits and impact of such efforts reflect their value as a comprehensive approach to addressing complex social problems.

Mobilizing Residents for Action: The Role of Small Wins and Strategic Supports
 Vol. 38, No. 3-4, December, 2006
 Pennie G. Foster-Fishman, Katie Fitzgerald, Cherise Brandell, Branda Nowell, David Chavis, & Laurie A. Van Egeren

ABSTRACT
Yes we can! is a community-building initiative funded by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation that aims to improve educational and economic outcomes in Battle Creek, Michigan by mobilizing low-income communities and resident leaders and building their capacity to influence the decisions and policies that impact their lives. This paper describes the strategies pursued during the first phase of this initiative to foster resident mobilization by building small wins within the neighborhood. Primarily through a neighborhood-based mini-grant program and staff supports to encourage collective action, Yes we can! has started to increase levels of resident mobilization within the seven economically distressed neighborhoods that initially partnered with the W. K. Kellogg Foundation on this effort. The specific programming components and how they were implemented as well as the initial successes experienced are described. Lessons learned are discussed.

Differential Effects of Strategic Planning on Community Change in Two Urban Neighborhood Coalitions                                                                                                                                                                                                              Vol. 42, No. 1-2, September 2008 pgs.
 Jomella Watson-Thompson, Stephen B. Fawcett, & Jerry A. Schultz

ABSTRACT
Community coalitions represent a promising approach for addressing the interrelated and multiply- determined issues affecting urban neighborhoods of concentrated poverty. The literature suggests a number of community processes that may affect coalition efforts to change and improve communities. This study uses an interrupted time-series design to examine the effects of a strategic planning intervention on community change in two urban neighborhoods in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Results showed that strategic planning was associated with increased rates of community change in the two urban neighborhood coalitions. Under appropriate conditions, such as the presence of consistent leadership, strategic planning may be a particularly effective mechanism for stimulating community change and addressing locally-determined goals in urban neighborhoods.

Developing a Partnership Model for Cancer Screening with Community-Based Organizations: The ACCESS Breast Cancer Education and Outreach Project
 Vol. 38, No. 3-4, December 2006
 Bruce D. Rapkin, Mary Jane Massie, Elizabeth J. Jansky, David W. Lounsbury, Paulette D. Murphy, & Shemeeakah Powell

ABSTRACT
There is growing enthusiasm for community-academic partnerships to promote health in underserved communities. Drawing upon resources available at a comprehensive cancer center, we developed the ACCESS program to guide community based organizations through a flexible program planning process. Over a three-year period, ACCESS partnered with 67 agencies serving various medically underserved populations. Organizations included hospitals, parishes, senior centers, harm reduction programs, and recreational facilities. Program outcomes at the organizational level were quantified in terms of introduction of new cancer information, referral or screening programs, as well as organizational capacity building. ACCESS represents a viable model for promoting partnership to transfer behavioral health programs and adapt interventions for new audiences. Plans to further evaluate and enhance this model to promote cancer screening efforts are discussed. We argue that, ultimately, formation and development of community partnerships need to be understood as a fundamental area of practice that must be systematically integrated into the mission of major academic medical institutions in every area of public health.

An Applied Collaborative Training Program for Graduate Students in Community Psychology: A Case Study of a Community Project Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Vol. 31, No. 3-4, June, 2003 
Jeanne L. Stanley

ABSTRACT
The following case study offers a detailed description of a university-organization partnership, the basis for a collaborative outreach training program between community psychology graduate students and a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth center. Students and youth collaborated over 2 semesters on the creation of a social meeting venue within an urban LGBTQ youth-operated center as part of a community outreach project in the students' course in community psychology. Semistructured interviews with the youth and the students provide first-person accounts and perspectives of the project as an effective learning tool for training students in community psychology and in working with LGBTQ youth.

Community organizing: An ecological route to empowerment and power
Vol. 23, No. 5, October 1995
Paul W. Speer & Joseph Hughey

ABSTRACT
An important contribution to empowerment theory and community psychology practice can be made by examining how the concept of social power is developed and manifested in the context of community organizing. Theory and practice may be further informed through an ecological analysis of organizing processes and interventions. Lessons from a national community organizing network highlight the relationship between empowerment and power through a set of organizing principles and a cycle of organizing activity. Perhaps most important is the understanding that a reciprocal relationship exists between development of power for community organizations and individual empowerment for organization members. Implications for empowerment theory in the community organizing domain are provided in a matrix adapted from Zimmerman's description of empowerment processes and outcomes at multiple levels of analysis.

                                                                                                                                                                                            

 

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