Critical Psychology


The term critical psychology refers to a variety of approaches that challenge mainstream psychology's assumptions and practices that help sustain unjust political, economic, and other societal structures. (Fox,

Web Resources

The Critical Praxis Cooperative (CPC) is a free association of transdisciplinary scholars and activists, who are interested in sharing resources regarding the confluence of critical theory and radical action. CPC adheres to the principle of transformative social change, wherein personal transformation and social change are understood to be interdependent; in other words, "the personal is political" as the second-wave feminists used to say.

OccupyPsy: Critical Psychology for Decolonization. This Facebook group provides a space for sharing insights, reflections, and questions about psychological aspects of the Occupy movement and similar uprisings. We are especially interested in developing and disseminating resources that will support activists and mobilize bystanders by, for example, analyzing resistance to involvement, fears around assertiveness, intragroup conflict, and other hindrances to revolutionary process and outcomes.

Dennis Fox's Homepage

Encyclopedia of Critical Psyhology

The Discourse Unit

The Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology

Books & Chapters

Prilleltensky, I., & Nelson, G. (2002). Doing Psychology Critically: Making a Difference in Diverse Settings. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sloan, T. (2000). Critical Psychology: Voices for Change. London: Macmillan.


Burton, M. (2004). Radical psychology networks: a review and guide. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology. 14, 119-130.

Parker, I. (1999). Critical psychology: critical links. Annual Review of Critical Psychology, 1, 3-18.

Articles Published in the American Psychologist

(Tip of the hat to Dennis Fox for compling these on his website here>>)

Albee, G. W. (1982). Preventing psychopathology and promoting human potential. 37: 1043-1050.

Albee, G. W. (1986). Toward a just society: Lessons from observations on the primary prevention of psychopathology. 41: 891-898.

Albee, G. W. (1996). Revolutions and counterrevolutions in prevention. 51: 1130-1133.

Argyris, C. (1975). Dangers in applying results from experimental social psychology. 469-485.

Bevan, W. (1982). A sermon of sorts in three plus parts. 37: 1303-1322.

Bevan, W. (1991). Contemporary psychology: A tour inside the onion. 46: 475-483.

Bevan, W. & Kessel, F. (1994). Plain truths and home cooking: Thoughts on the making and remaking of psychology. 49: 505-509.

Bramel, D., & Friend, R. (1981). Hawthorne, the myth of the docile worker, and class bias in psychology. 36: 867-78.

Buss, A. R. (1975). The emerging field of the sociology of psychological knowledge. 30: 988-1002.

Caplan, N., & Nelson, S. (1973). On being useful: The nature and consequences of psychological research on social problems. 28: 199-211.

Ceci, S. J., Peters, D., & Plotkin, J. (1985) Human subjects review, personal values, and the regulation of social science research. 40: 994-1002.

Chavis, D., Stucky, P., & Wandersman, A. (1983). Returning basic research to the community: A relationship between scientists and citizens. 38: 424-434.

Clark, K. B. (1971). The pathos of power: A psychological perspective. 26: 1047-1057.

Cronbach, L. J. (1975) Beyond the two disciplines of scientific psychology. 30: 116-126.

Cowen, E. L. (1991). In pursuit of wellness. 46: 404-408.

Cronbach, L. J. (1975). Beyond the two disciplines of psychology. 116-127.

Cushman, P. (1990). Why the self Is empty: Toward a historically situated psychology. 45: 599-611.

DeLeon, P. H. (1986). Increasing the societal contribution of organized psychology. 41: 466-474.

Denmark, F., Russo, N.F., Frieze, I.H. & Sechzer, J. (1988). Guidelines for non-sexist research. 43: 582-585.

Deutsch, Morton (1979). Education and distributive justice: Some reflections on grading systems. 34: 391-401.

Eagly, A. H. (1995). The science and politics of comparing women and men. 50: 145-158.

Elms, A. C. (1975). The crisis of confidence in social psychology. 30: 967-976.

Edney, J. J. (1980). The commons problem: Alternative perspectives. 35: 131-150.

Fowers, B. J., & Richardson, F. C. (1996). Why is multiculturalism good? 51: 609-621.

Fancher, R. E. (1988). Henry Goddard and the Kallikak Family photographs: "Conscious skulduggery" or "Whig history"? 42: 585-590.

Finison, L. J. (1976). Unemployment, politics, and the history of organized psychology. 31: 741-755.

Fox, D. R. (1985). Psychology, ideology, utopia, and the commons. 40: 48-58.

Fox, D. R. (1993). Psychological jurisprudence and radical social change. 48: 234-241.

Gergen, K. J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. 40: 266-275.

Gergen, K. J. (1994). Exploring the postmodern: Perils or potentials? 49: 412-416.

Hare-Mustin, R. T., Marecek, J., Kaplan, A. G., & Liss-Levinson, N. (1979). Rights of clients, responsibilities of therapists. 34: 3-16.

Hare-Mustin, R. T. & Marecek, J. (1988). The meaning of difference: Gender theory, postmodernism, and psychology. 43: 455-464.

Harris, B. (1979). Whatever happened to Little Albert? 34: 151-160.

Hedges, L. V. (1987) How hard is hard science, how soft is soft science? 42: 443-455.

Hermans, H. J. M., Kempen, H. J. G., & van Loon, R. J. P. (1992). The dialogical self: Beyond individualism and rationalism.

Hillerbrand, E. (1987). Philosophical tensions influencing psychology and social action. 22: 403-15.

Hogan, R. (1975). Theoretical egocentrism and the problem of compliance. 30: 533-540.

Howard, G. (1985). The role of values in the science of psychology. 40: 255-265.

Humphreys, K., & Rappaport, J. (1993). From the community mental health movement to the war on drugs: A study in the definition of social problems. 48: 892-901.

Kanfer, R. H. (1979). Personal control, social control, and altruism: Can society survive the age of individualism? 34: 231-239.

Kimble, G. (1984). Psychology's two cultures. 39: 833-839.

Kipnis, D. (1987) Psychology and behavioral technology. 42: 30-36.

Lott, B. (1985) The potential enrichment of social/personality psychology through feminist research and vice versa. 40: 155-164.

Mahoney, M. J. (1985) Open exchange and epistemic progress. 40: 29-39.

Manicas, P. T., & Secord, P. F. (1983). Implications for psychology of the new philosophy of science. 38: 399-413.

McHugh, M. C., Koeske, R. D., & Frieze, I. H. (1986) Issues to consider in conducting nonsexist psychological research: A guide for researchers. 41: 879-890.

Mednick, Martha T.S. (1989) On the politics of psychological constructs. 44: 1118-1123.

Miller, G. A. (1969). Psychology as a means of promoting human welfare. 24: 1063-1075.

Miller-Jones, D. (1989) Culture and testing. 44: 360-366.

Moghaddam, F.M. (1987). Psychology in three worlds: As reflected by the crisis in social psychology and the move toward indigenous third-world psychology. 42: 912-920.

Morin, S.F. (1977) Heterosexual bias in psychological research on lesbianism and male homosexuality. 19: 629-37.

Morin, S.F. and Rothblum, E. (1991) Removing the stigma: Fifteen years of progress, 46: 947-949.

Morawski, J. G. (1982). Assessing psychology's moral heritage through our neglected utopias. 37: 1082-1095.

Nelson, G., & Walsh-Bowers, R. (1994). Psychology and psychiatric survivors. 49: 895-896.

Payton, C. R. (1984). Who must do the hard things? 39: 391-397.

Pepitone, A. (1981). Lessons from the history of social psychology. 36: 827-836.

Perloff, R. (1987) Self-interest and personal responsibility redux. 42: 3-11.

Prilleltensky, I. (1989). Psychology and the status quo. 44: 795-802.

Prilleltensky, I. (1997). Values, assumptions, and practices: Assessing the moral implications of psychological discourse and action. 47: 517-535.

Proshansky, H. M. (1972). For what are we training our graduate students? 27: 205-212.

Rieff, R. (1968). Social intervention and the problem of psychological analysis. 23: 524-531.

Riger, S. (1992). Epistemological debates, feminist voices: Science, social values, and the study of women. 47: 730-740.

Sampson, E. E. (1981). Cognitive psychology as ideology. 36: 730-743.

Sampson, E. E. (1985) The decentralization of identity: toward a revised concept of personal and social order. 40: 1203-1211.

Sampson, E. E. (1988). The debate on individualism: Indigenous psychologies of the individual and their role in personal and societal functioning. 43: 15-22.

Sampson, E. E. (1989). The challenge of social change for psychology: Globalization and psychology's theory of the person. 44: 914-921.

Sanford, N. (1965). Will psychologists study human problems? 20: 192-202.

Sanford, N. (1982). Social psychology: Its place in personology. 37: 896-903.

Sarason, S. B. (1978). The nature of problem solving in social action. 33:370-80.

Sarason, S. B. (1981). An asocial psychology and a misdirected clinical psychology. 36: 827-836.

Sarason, S. B. (1984). If it can be studied or developed, should it be? 39: 477-85.

Schacht, T. E. (1985). DSM-III and the politics of truth. 40: 513-21.

Shore, R. P. (1982). Servants of power revisited. 37: 334-35.

Smith, M. B. (1973). Is psychology relevant to new priorities? 28: 463-471.

Smith, M. B. (1990). Psychology in the public interest: What have we done? What can we do? 45: 530-536.

Smith, M. B. (1994). Selfhood at risk: Postmodern perils and the perils of postmodernism. 49: 405-411.

Spence, J. T. (1985) Achievement American style: The rewards and costs of individualism. 40: 1285-1295.

Tyler, F. B., Pargament, K. I., & Gatz, M. (1983). The resource collaborator role: A model for interactions involving psychologists. 38: 388-98.

Unger, R. K. (1985). Epistemological consistency and its scientific implications. 40: 1413 -1414.

Varela, J. A. (1977). Social technology. 32: 914-923.

Wachtel, P. L. (1980). Investigation and its discontents: Some constraints on progress in psychological research. 35: 399-408.

Waterman, A. S. (1981). Individualism and independence. 36: 762-773.


Fox, D. (2011). Reflections on Occupying. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 3, 129-1.